Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease

Deep Brain Stimulation pic

Deep Brain Stimulation
Image: parkinson.org

As a neurosurgeon at Cleveland Clinic Florida, Dr. Badih Adada undertakes skull base and vascular procedures. Dr. Badih Adada also draws on his extensive experience to train neurosurgeons around the globe in deep brain stimulation, a practice that aids patients with movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to treat Parkinson’s by addressing symptoms such as rigidity, stiffness, tremors, and difficulty walking. Unlike other, more dated procedures, DBS does not destroy targeted brain cells nor damage healthy brain tissue; instead, it effectively blocks electrical signals being sent from specific areas in the brain, primarily the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus.

DBS is most commonly performed on patients who were diagnosed at least four years prior, and who continue to experience motor function issues despite positive results from medication. The latter is a factor because the surgery seems to best treat symptoms that respond to medication, and is less effective for symptoms that do not. DBS is also not ideal for patients who have developed dementia–a common accompaniment to Parkinson’s–as it can exacerbate this condition.

The Causes of Brain Aneurysms

Brain Aneurysms pic

Brain Aneurysms
Image: webmd.com

Practicing in Weston, Florida, Dr. Badih Adada has performed approximately 4000 neurosurgical procedures in the past 15 years. As a practitioner with the Cleveland Clinic, Dr. Badih Adada has undertaken numerous treatments for conditions such as brain aneurysms and achieved a track record of minimal complications.

Brain aneurysms occur at the junctions of the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Aneurysms involve bulging spots that emerge on the brain artery wall over a period of time as wear and tear occur. The pressure involved can ultimately cause a rupture in the vein, with blood escaping and filling the space surrounding the brain.

In many cases, brain aneurysms are completely asymptomatic, which makes them difficult to predict. More than 80 percent of aneurysms are saccular and involve a berry-shaped sac forming at the artery bifurcation.

Ruptures are rare events, with bleeding causing sudden illness and potential disability and mortality. Those who survive ruptures, often through prompt medical treatment, face a challenging, protracted healing period.

Endoscopic Surgery Offers Pinpoint Precision with Minimal Discomfort

Dr. Badih Adada pic

Dr. Badih Adada
Image: my.clevelandclinic.org

Dr. Badih Adada, having performed over four thousand neurosurgical procedures over the fourteen years of his career, brings this experience to his patients at the Cleveland Clinic of Weston, Florida. Though experienced in numerous forms of neurological procedures and treatments, Dr. Badih Adada’s particular expertise is with surgery of the skull base, one of many especially delicate forms of surgery that have advanced considerably with the development of endoscopic surgical tools.

The first endoscope was invented in 1806 by an Italian-German physician, Dr. Philipp Bozzini, for examining surface openings such as the mouth, rectum, nasal cavity, and open wounds. Modern endoscopes are very much the same as Dr. Bozzini’s in principle, but use more sophisticated tools and materials, having become thinner, lighter, and more flexible. Fiber optics offer clear images while allowing a scope to wind its way through the twists and turns of the circulatory or gastrointestinal system, and miniaturized surgical devices can allow surgeons to carry out many procedures using the scope itself.

One of the immediate benefits of endoscopic surgery, regardless of the purpose for which it’s being used, is its minimally-invasive nature. Endoscopes can be threaded through small openings, around and between organs, and within narrow blood vessels, giving surgeons a clear view of the deeper components of the body without the need to open it up surgically. Natural bodily openings are enough for endoscopes to find entry, but a small incision can be used as well, such as in surgeries involving joints or muscle tissue. An endoscopy can be performed in as little as an hour, and usually with no need for an overnight hospital stay or general anesthetic.

In addition to its convenient and relatively painless nature in regard to the patient, the precision nature of endoscopic surgery has proven particularly useful in the treatment of cancers, the gastrointestinal tract, the heart and major blood vessels, and the spinal cord.

Causes and Risk Factors of a Brain Aneurysm

Brain Aneurysm pic

Brain Aneurysm
Image: webmd.com

For more than 15 years, Dr. Badih Adada has been working as a neurosurgeon. Currently working for Cleveland Clinic in Florida, he provides surgical treatments for complex pathologies of the brain. Board certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgeons, Dr. Badih Adada specializes in skull base and vascular neurosurgery, as well as brain aneurysms.

Brain aneurysms are most commonly located in the Circle of Willis, which is a junction of four arteries near the base of the brain. They result from a thinning of the artery walls and can be caused by several different things. Although aneurysms don’t form solely because of genetics, there is a link between the condition and family history. Individuals who have a family history of brain aneurysms are more likely to develop one than those with no family history. Further, personal history of aneurysms results in an increased risk of developing a second or third aneurysm later on.

There have been links made between the risk of brain aneurysms and gender and race. In general, African-Americans are more likely than whites to experience a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Women are also more likely to suffer this and they are more at risk of developing an aneurysm. High blood pressure, trauma, and abnormal blood flow in the Circle of Willis also increase risk. Once a brain aneurysm has formed, excessive exercise, sexual intercourse, and intense anger can all increase the risk of the aneurysm rupturing.

Criteria for the CNS Seal of Approval

Congress of Neurological Surgeons pic

Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Image: cns.org

An alumnus of the University of Montreal, neurosurgeon Dr. Badih Adada counts with over 14 years of practice in his field. Since 2008, he has been affiliated with the Cleveland Clinic in Weston, Florida. Dr. Badih Adada belongs to several professional societies and organizations, including the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS).

Established in 1951, CNS is a non-profit organization dedicated to becoming a leader in advancing the medical subspecialty of neurosurgery through innovation and education. In order to achieve its mission, the organization actively collaborates with other organizations that share in its mission of improving the professional education of neurosurgeons. While these organizations make continuing education accessible for practitioners, it is the responsibility of CNS to ensure that these educational programs adhere to the same high standards of the programs that CNS offers.

To ensure the quality of these educational activities, CNS invites organizers to apply for the CNS Seal of Approval. CNS reviews all applications and judges them based on a set of criteria. The primary criterion for the approval of an activity is that it should serve to maintain or increase the knowledge and skills of neurosurgeons in their own practice. Although programs are evaluated based on alignment with the mission statement of CNS, they should also be unique and not conflict with any of the organization’s own products and services.

Activities that are organized for the sole purpose of making a profit will not be recognized. Moreover, the program should be conducted in either the US or Canada.

The Responsibility of a Bioethics Committee

Bioethics Committee pic

Bioethics Committee
Image: aub.edu.lb

Beginning in 2008, Dr. Badih Adada has served Cleveland Clinic Florida, in the city of Weston, as a neurosurgeon. Specializing in vascular brain malformations and brain aneurysms and tumors, Dr. Badih Adada has developed programs for the clinic designed specifically for Parkinson’s and epilepsy surgical procedures. In addition to his medical practice, Dr. Adada has offered his expertise as a teacher, author, and a member of several medical related committees, such as the Bioethics Committee at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC).

Medical ethics, defined as a set of moral principles that attach judgments and values to medical practices, are applied in medical settings as well as in education and training curricula. When the AUBMC established their Salim El-Hoss Bioethics and Professionalism Program, for example, the program instituted bedside medical ethics consultations in order to achieve more comprehensive patient evaluations. While the program took on an important role alongside the clinical aspects of patient care, it has been often the cause of conflict between members of the medical team. The hospital ethics committee is tasked with resolving these often emotional and multifaceted matters affecting medical practices.

Study Proves Differential Diagnosis of Fibrous Dysplasia of the Clivus

Dr. Badih Adada pic

Dr. Badih Adada
Image: my.clevelandclinic.org

A board-certified neurosurgeon working with Cleveland Clinic Florida, Dr. Badih Adada has performed complex brain surgeries for brain tumors, brain aneurysms, and vascular malformations of the brain. Previously an associate professor of neurosurgery at the University of Arkansas Medical School, Dr. Badih Adada was involved in a study that proved fibrous dysplasia could be differentially diagnosed.

Fibrous dysplasia is a skeletal disease that causes distortion and weakening of bones. Craniofacial involvement in the entity is recognized and can cause cosmetic deformity or neurovascular impingement. However, fibrous dysplasia of the clivus is not recognized and is rarely documented. Differentiating this specific disorder from other disease processes is vital for its proper management.

In this study, researchers studied fibrous dysplasia of the clivus with a goal to document its manifestations, outline a good management system, and increase awareness of the disease. Researchers reviewed a comprehensive database of previous patients and singled out patients diagnosed with fibrous dysplasia of the clivus. Eight patients were identified. Four of the patients showed no symptoms of the disease while the other four reported headaches as a symptom of the disease. The patients’ demographics, clinical results, radiological findings, and management were then reviewed.

Radiological findings were similar to the findings of hypointensity on T1- and T2- weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies. Four patients actually had a pathological confirmation.

Researchers concluded that fibrous dysplasia had to be given consideration in the differential diagnosis of lesions of the clivus as both radiological and clinical findings permitted a positive diagnosis.